• Domestic abuse

    The definition of domestic abuse under The Domestic Abuse Act 2021 is
    summarised as follows:
    Any incident or pattern of incidents of controlling, coercive or threatening behaviour, violence or abuse between those aged 16 years and over, who are
    or have been intimate partners (at any point even a short period), family members regardless of gender, identity or sexuality.

    Domestic abuse can encompass, but is not limited to, the following types of abuse (please see the safeguarding handbook domestic abuse section for
    further information).

    Physical Abuse: can include hitting, punching, slapping, pinching, kicking, choking, hitting or
    throwing objects, hair pulling, pushing or shoving, cutting or stabbing, restraining, spitting, strangulation.

    Sexual Abuse: can include rape and coerced sex, forcing the victim/victim/survivor to take
    part in unwanted sexual acts or unwanted viewing of pornographic material, unwanted exposure, refusal to practice safe sex or use contraception, threatened or actual sexual abuse of children.

    Financial Abuse: can include controlling money and bank accounts, making a victim/ survivor account for all their expenditure, running up debts in the victim /survivor's name, allowing no say on how monies are spent, refusing to allow them to
    study, work or complete hobbies.

    Psychological Abuse: has a profound impact upon victims/ survivor and their families. It can leave
    the victim/survivor with little confidence that they can do anything to change the situation.
    Examples include:
    • Creating isolation e.g., not allowing the victim/survivor to see other people including family, preventing them from making their own friendships, not allowing them to go anywhere on their own causing them to become depressed and then using it against them.
    • Use of threats e.g., to kill their family, children, friends, pets; to throw them out and keep the children, to find them if they ever leave, to
    have them locked up, to tell everyone they are mad, gaslighting.
    • Putting them down – humiliating, undermining in front of others or in front of family members including children, grandchildren or great grandchildren. Telling them that they are stupid, hopeless, hated, unlovable, that no one would believe them or that they are a bad
    parent regardless of the children’s age – including adult children.

    Discriminatory Abuse: may manifest itself as any of the other categories of abuse, however what makes discriminatory abuse distinctive is it is motivated by oppressive and discriminatory attitudes towards:
    • Disability
    • Physical appearance
    • Learning disability
    • Mental health
    • Race
    • Religion
    • Gender/gender identity
    • Age
    • Culture
    • Sexual orientation

    The definition also includes honour-based abuse, forced or predatory marriage, female genital mutilation. The impact of domestic abuse can range
    from loss of esteem to loss of life. Coercive and controlling behaviour underpins all forms of domestic abuse and is explained as a range of
    purposed behaviours including intimidation, isolation, emotional abuse and manipulation.

    These behaviours are often used as the primary mechanisms for achieving power and control in an abusive relationship and these behaviours reinforces
    the threat or reality of physical abuse. Family and inter-generational abuse: Domestic abuse approaches.

  • AWG – Violence against Women and Girls

    Violence against women and girls (VAWG) covers a range of unacceptable and deeply distressing crimes, including rape and other sexual offences, stalking, domestic abuse, ‘honour’-based abuse (including female genital mutilation, forced marriage and ‘honour’ killings), ‘revenge porn’ and ‘up skirting’, as well as many others. These crimes disproportionately affect women and girls.

  • DASH risk assessment – Domestic Abuse, stalking and honour-based violence risk assessment

    A DASH risk assessment is a risk assessment for victim/survivor who are or have experienced domestic abuse. It is a fast and vital risk assessment of
    immediate danger or risk of harm. It does not replace professional judgement. Those risk assessments which are classed as high risk of 14+ answers of yes will automatically be referred to MARAC, professional
    judgement can be used to refer medium risk concerns.

  • ARAC – Multiagency risk assessment conference

    MARAC is a meeting between statutory representatives such as local
    authorities' adult, child and safeguarding departments, police, sexual assault
    services, NHS and some local partners including housing and voluntary
    organisations. MARAC works with victim/survivor – adult and child. There is
    also support at MARAC for the alleged or proven perpetrators.

  • APPA – Multiagency Public Protection Arrangements

    A statutory arrangement response that requires police, local authorities,
    prison services to assess and risk posed by sexual and violent offenders.
    Other agencies can be involved in MAPPA including job centre plus,
    registered providers, strategic health authorities, care and NHS trusts,
    electronic monitoring providers.
    The principles that govern MAPPA are:
    • Identify convicted offenders who may pose a risk of harm
    • Share relevant information about them for public protection purposes
    • Assess the nature and extent of that risk; and
    • Find ways to manage the risk effectively by protecting victims,
    victim/survivor and reducing future harm. 

  • Victim/survivor

    The term victim/survivor replaces the terminology of victim to describe those
    who have or are experiencing domestic abuse. It covers individuals who are
    working on removing the risk of harm and for those where the risk has been
    removed. The term victim/survivor will be used throughout any Domestic
    Abuse documentation and training at Housing 21.

  • Domestic Abuse Champion

    The champions within Housing 21 have received specialised domestic abuse
    training. The champions can risk assess for current or possible risk for
    domestic abuse and make necessary referrals to MARAC meetings within the
    victim/survivor local area. The champions are the go-to support mechanism
    for domestic abuse working directly and closely with Housing 21 safeguarding

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